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                                               Dengue Fever

Dengue fever is nowadays becoming a common viral fever. The principal agent causing the dengue fever is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. It breeds in stagnated water. When an infected mosquito bites a human being, the virus enters with the body, and it takes 2-7 days to produce symptoms.

Clinical Features
  • Malaise and headache for about two days
  • Fever, generalized body pain (break bone fever) anorexia, nausea vomiting, weakness, prostration, pain on eye movement, headache and low heart beat.
  • Fever last about 7-8 days.
  • After two to three days, rash began to appear on the whole body except palm and sole.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome

It usually occurs in children. In mild case, there are thrombocytopenia and low hemoglobin. But in severe case, blood pressure goes down, and pulse become weak then there is leakage of blood. So on the skin bleeding spots (ecchymotic patches) appear, and there is bleeding from the nose also. All these occur after 3-4 days of fever. And also bleeding may occur in the gastrointestinal tract.
In adult, dengue hemorrhagic syndrome occurs rarely, but if it occurs, it is fatal. There is bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, liver function is affected as evidence by elevated liver enzyme, and blood abnormalities.


Investigations
  • Blood examination-leucocytes count is markedly reduced and also -thrombocytes.
  • Increased serum IgG antibody.
  • Detection dengue virus from blood.

Treatment
  • General measures
  • Cleaning the surrounding, and avoid water stagnation, which is the point of breeding places.

Homeopathic treatment

Homeopathic treatment is highly effective, and since it is treating according to symptom similarity, it prevents the further complications also. There are effective medicines in homeopathy like Eupatorium, Rhus tox, Bryonia, etc. Medicines are selected according to the symptom similarity hence from individual to individual the medicine may change and depending up on the vitality of the patient the potency as well changes. So homeopathy is highly recommended for the treatment of dengue fever.

                                                  LEPTOSPIROSIS


Leptospirosis is becoming one of the most common health hazards worldwide. It is one of the important diseases that spread from animal to human beings (zoonotic diseases). The tropical climate and flooding during monsoon seasons are the favourable causes.

These bacteria are common in wild animals and especially the common rat in our places. The bacteria lodge in the kidney of these animals without causing any symptoms, and they are shed through the urine in massive numbers.

The bacteria can enter the body of the human being even though the intact skin and mucous membrane and especially through the cuts and abrasion. When the bacteria enter the body, it spread throughout the body, and the liver, kidney and brain are especially affected.

After 1-2 weeks after the entry of the bacteria, the symptom begins to appear.

There are four main type of presentation.

Bacteraemic Leptospirois

In certain groups, the symptoms are non specific. There is fever, body pain, tenderness of calf muscles and back, severe head ache, photophobia, and sometimes diarrhoea and vomiting.

The most important physical sign is the redness of the eyes.  By about a week, the disease may subside by itself or changes into another form.

Aseptic meningitis

Here the causative bacteria are L canicola, and in early stage, it is difficult to identify from viral meningitis.

The diagnosis is from lab examinations. There is abnormal liver function test, neutrophil count is increased, presence of albumin and casts in the urine.

Icteric leptospirosis-(Weil’s disease)

Weil’s disease is highly fatal and is characterized by fever, haemorrhages, jaundice and impaired renal functions. Redness of eyes is a frequent feature. There is bleeding under the skin and large areas of ‘red spots can be seen on the skin. In severe cases, bleeding occurs through the nose, and there is blood in urine, stool, and bleeding into lungs also. The liver is enlarged, and the renal failure is evidenced by the decreased or complete stoppage of urine. And there are albumin and blood in urine.

Pulmonary syndrome

It is characterized by spitting of blood (hemoptysis) and respiratory failure.

Diagnosis

  • Blood examination
  • Liver function test
  • Renal function test

Management

Avoid contacting with stagnated water, especially in monsoon seasons.

Homeopathic treatment is highly recommended for the Leptospirosis as well Weil’s disease. Since homeopathic treatment is based on symptom similarity, exact medicines can be prescribed if the disease is changed to various stages. Usually in the beginning homeopathic medicines such as Belladona, Rhus tox, Baptesia, etc. is prescribed because the symptoms exactly match with the symptoms of above medicines. And even if disease changes at different stages, depending on the symptoms, medicines changes to Phosphorus, Lachesis, etc. In short homeopathic medicines are highly effective in Leptospirosis

                                                                                                   FILARIASIS

Filariasis is caused by the bite of an infected mosquito. After a bite, the larvae are inoculated into the blood of human being, and these larvae develop into an adult worm. The adult worm is 2 -50cm long. These adult worms after mating produce millions of microfilariae, and it migrate to blood or skin.

The microfilariae survive 2-3 years, and adult worms survive for about 10-15 years.

The filarial worms’ wuchereria bancrofti and brugia malayi causes hydrocele and elephantiasis. Culex mosquitos spread the worms. The adult worm lives in lymphatics and female produce microfilariae, which come to the peripheral blood during the night.

The factors causing the lymphatic filariasis are the living adult worm, and inflammatory response is caused by the death of the adult worm, microfilariae and the secondary infections. Death of adult worms results in acute filarial lymphangitis. And even after the death of the worms' obstruction of lymphatic continues. Microfilariae are one of the major causes of pulmonary eosinophilia.

Clinical feature

High-grade fever, pain and tenderness and redness along the course of inflamed lymphatic vessels. It lasts for a few days, but may recur at frequent intervals. Inflammations of the testes and spermatic cord are common. The acute symptoms may subside within days but recur at frequent intervals. And finally the swelling become permanent. And the swelling becomes hard and will not pit on pressure, and the skin become rough and corrugated and form into the typical elephantiasis or elephant leg.

Investigations.

Blood examination-

There is eosinophilia.

Presence of microfilariae in blood examination at night.

Ultra sound of the scrotum may sometimes show the movement of the adult worms.

Treatment

Diethylcarbamazine is the treatment in allopathy. The dying microfilariae may cause allergic symptoms like fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and pain joints.

Homeopathic treatment

In early stages homeopathic medicines are highly effecting in controlling the acute episodes. The acute symptoms are managed according to symptoms, and the recurrence is prevented by miasmatic remedy. According to homeopathic philosophy, the worm infestation belongs to psoric miasm. The acute episodes are followed by antipsoric remedies. But when the symptoms are advanced like the elephantiasis and large hydrocele, only temporary relief is possible. And in severe case, the hydrocele should get operated.

And homeopathic can also safely be given along with allopathic medicines.

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